The success of 3D console titles such as Super Mario 64 increased interest in hardware accelerated 3D graphics on PCs, and soon resulted in attempts to produce affordable solutions with the ATI Rage, Matrox Mystique, and S3 ViRGE. By the late 1970s to early 1980s, games were developed and distributed through hobbyist groups and gaming magazines, such as Creative Computing and later Computer Gaming World. Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of 1983, particularly in Europe, leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". Chris Crawford warned that it was "a data-intensive technology, not a process-intensive one", tempting developers to emphasize the quantity of digital assets like art and music over the quality of gameplay; Computer Gaming World wrote in 1993 that "publishers may be losing their focus". The CD-ROM had much larger storage capacity than floppies, helped reduce software piracy, and was less expensive to produce.
(The game Les Manley 2 satirized this by depicting two beautiful women exhaust the hero in bed, by requesting that he again explain the difference between extended and expanded memory.) Computer Gaming World provided technical assistance to its writers to help install games for review. By 1996, the growing popularity of Microsoft Windows simplified device driver and memory management. Increasing adoption of the computer mouse, driven partially by the success of adventure games such as the highly successful King's Quest series, and high resolution bitmap displays allowed the industry to include increasingly high-quality graphical interfaces in new releases. The first generation of computer games were often text adventures or interactive fiction, in which the player communicated with the computer by entering commands through a keyboard.
Players found modifying CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files for memory management cumbersome and confusing, and each game needed a different configuration. By 1993 PC games required much more memory than other software, often consuming all of conventional memory, while peripheral device drivers could go into upper memory with DOS memory managers. First sold in 1977, Microchess eventually sold over 50,000 copies on cassette tape. These cards allowed IBM PC compatible computers to produce complex sounds using FM synthesis, where they had previously been limited to simple tones and beeps. Increasing adoption of the computer mouse, driven partially by the success of adventure games such as the highly successful King's Quest series, and high resolution bitmap displays allowed the industry to include increasingly high-quality graphical interfaces in new releases. Electronic Arts reported that customers used computers for games more than one fifth of the time whether or not they purchased them for work at home. Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of 1983, particularly in Europe, leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". More than a third of games sold in North America were for the PC, twice as many as those for the Apple II and even outselling those for the Commodore 64. IBM, the world's largest computer company, introduced the IBM Personal Computer (PC) in 1981.